Translation of Sahih Muslim, Book 6:

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KITAB AL-SAWM
THE BOOK OF FASTING

INTRODUCTION

After prayer the second obligatory duty which every Muslim is required toper- form is that of fasting during the month of Ramadan. The word sawm which has been used in the Holy Qur'an and the Hadith for fasting means "to abstain"; thus a horse that abstains from moving about or from eating the fodder is said to be sa'im. In the technical language sawm signifies fasting or abstaining from food and drink and sexual intercourse from the dim beginning of dawn till sunset.

Fasting as an institution for the purification of the soul is common to all Divine religions. The writer of the article on "Fasting" in the Encyclopadia Britannica states that "it would be difficult to name any religious system of any description in which it is wholly unrecognized." This institution was well established among the Jews and the Christians.

The records of the Hadith bear ample testimony to the fact that fasting was a common religious practice among the pre-Islamic Arabs too, and they used to observe fast on the tenth of Muharram because it was on this very day that Allah saved Moses and his companions from the clutches of the Pharaoh who was drowned in the sea along with his army. The Arabs and other people too were familiar with fasting as an act of penitence or of propitiation or a preparatory rite before some act of sacramental eating or an initiation or a mourning ceremony.

In Islam fasting is primarily an institution for a spiritual discipline and selfcontrol. It is in fact an exercise in religious devotion in the form of cheerful and willing renunciation, for a definite period, of all the appetites of flesh lawful in themselves (the unlawful ones being ruled out of course). The Qur'an says:

0 ye who believe ! prescribed unto you is fasting even as it was prescribed unto those before you. that haply you may become God-conscious (ii. 183).

Of all the creation of God only man deviates from His path. We will find that two things are mainly responsible for this: the love for material possessions and the tempta- tions of the flesh. Islam has, through the institutions of Zakat and Sadaqat, purged the hearts of its followers from the love of wealth, and has inculcated in him the habit to part with it readily for the sake of God.

Fasting has been ordained as a religious duty for the Muslims for subduing their lust and keeping their appetites well within reasonable bounds so that man may not become their slave and lose control over himself. The Qur'an clearly states that a man cannot attain salvation unless he learns to restrain his self from low desires. "And as for him who fears to stand before his Lord and restrains himself from low desires, Paradise is surely the abode" (lxxix. 40-41).

The exercise of abstaining from things otherwise lawful in the ordinary course of life, at the behest of Allah, strengthens man's morality and self-control and deepens in him the consciousness of the Lord. This is what distinguishes fasting in Islam from fasting in other religions.

It should also be borne in mind that fasting does not aim at inflicting punishment upon people or sadding upon them unbearable burdens. The underlying idea behind it is to teach moderation and spiritual discipline so that human temptations may not become so wild and uncontrollable as to flout the commands of the Great Master. To be a true servant of Allah, it is essential that man should be able to conform his behaviour to the moral and spiritual discipline embodied in the Shari'ah of Islam. One cannot achieve this end if one finds oneself helpless before untamed and turbulent desires. Fasting is indispensable for this moral and spiritual training.

Another distinguishing feature of Islamic fasting is that it does not train a person for complete renunication but for perfect and cheerful obedience to the Lord All those things from which man is commanded to abstain during fast, e.g. eating, drinking and sexual intercourse, become permissible for him at the end of the fast. This shows that Islam does not look down upon the appetite of flesh as something ignoble and thus fit to be exterminated root and branch from the human soul. According to Islam, there is nothing profane or ignoble in human personality: both soul and body are sacred and worthy of respect. No aspect is to be ignored and no urge is to be completely curbed. What is required is to keep all these urges well within their proper limits so that none of them transgresses natural bounds and becomes the source of trouble.

That fasting is an institution for moral elevation can be judged from the fact that Allah does not impose check only upon eating, drinking and sexual intercourse from dawn to sunset, but also exhorts His servants to refrain from other foul acts, for ex- ample, backbiting, indulging in foul speech, telling lies, etc. Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying : If one does not abandon falsehood and other actions like it, God has no need that one should abandon one's food and drink (Sahih Bukhari).

The social aspect of fasting in Ramadan is that the whole atmosphere is permeated with religious piety and devotion to Allah. There is one extra congregational prayer, Tarawih, during the night, in which the Qur'an is recited and the Muslim is reminded of the fact that it was in the month of Ramadan that the revelation of the Qur'an commenced. The sadaqqt are also given with greater zeal and fervour in this month. Thus the whole Muslim society is inspired by the love of God. Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When Ramadan begins, the gates of Heaven are opened, the gates of Hell are locked, and the devils are chained (Bukhari and Muslim).

Muhammad Asad, while elucidating the spiritual and moral significance of fast says: "Twofold I learned, is the purpose of this month of fasting. One has to abstain from food and drink in order to feel in one's body what the poor and hungry feel :thus social responsibility is being hammered into human consciousness as a religious postulate. The other purpose of fasting during Ramadan is self-discipline, an aspect of individual morality strongly accentuated in all Islamic teachings (as, for instance, in the total prohibition of all intoxicants, which Islam regards as too easy an avenue of escape from consciousness and responsibility). In these two elements-brotherhood of man and Individual self-discipline -I began to discern nhe outline of Islam's ethical out look" (Road to Mecca, London, 1954, p. 188).

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Chapter 1 : EXCELLENCE OF THE MONTH OF RAMADAN

Book 6, Number 2361:

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When there comes the month of Ramadan, the gates of mercy are opened, and the gates of Hell are locked and the devils are chained,

Book 6, Number 2362:

This hadith is reported by Abu Huraira (with a slight alteration of words) that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: "When (the month of) Ramadan begins."

Chapter 2 : FASTING IN RAMADAN SHOULD NECESSARILY BE COMMENCED WITH THE SIGHT OF THE NEW MOON AND FINISHED WITH THE SIGHT OF THE NEWMOON IF THE WEATHER IS CLOUDY AT THE BEGINNING OR AT THE END, THEN COMPLETE THIRTY DAYS

Book 6, Number 2363:

Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with both of them) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying in connection with Ramadan: Do not fast till you see the new moon, and do not break fast till you see it; but if the weather is cloudy calculate about it.

Book 6, Number 2364:

Ibn Umar reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) made a mention of Ramadan and he with the gesture of his hand said: The month is thus and thus. (He then withdrew his thumb at the third time). He then said: Fast when you see it, and break your fast when you see it, and if the weather is cloudy calculate it (the months of Sha'ban and Shawwal) as thirty days.

Book 6, Number 2365:

This hadith is narrated on the authority of 'Ubaidullah with the same chain of transmitters, and he said: If (the sky) is cloudy for you, then calculate thirty days (for the month of Ramadan).

Book 6, Number 2366:

'Ubaidullah narrated on the authority of the same chain of transmitters that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) made a mention of Ramadan and said: The month may consist of twenty-nine days, and it may be thus, thus and thus, and (he further) said: Calculate it, but he did not say thirty.

Book 6, Number 2367:

Ibn'Umar (Allah be pleased with-both of them) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The month of Ramadan may consist of twenty-nine days. So do not fast till you have sighted it (the new moon) and do not break fast, till you have sighted it (the new moon of Shawwal), and if the sky is cloudy for you, then calculate.

Book 6, Number 2368:

'Abdullah b. 'Umar (Allah be pleased with both of them) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The month (of Ramadan) may consist of twenty nine days; so when you see the new moon observe fast and when you see (the new moon again at the commencement of the month of Shawwal) then break It, and if the sky is cloudy for you, then calculate it (and complete thirty days).

Book 6, Number 2369:

'Abdullah b. Umar (Allah be pleased with both of them) reported Allah's Measenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When you see the new moon, observe fast, and when you see it (again) then break it, and if the sky is cloudy for you, then calculate it.

Book 6, Number 2370:

Ibn 'Umar (Allah be pleased with both of them) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The month may consist of twenty-nine nights. So do not fast till you have sighted it (the new moon) and do not break it till you have sighted it, except when the sky is cloudy for you, and if it is so, then calculate it.

Book 6, Number 2371:

Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with both of them) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The month is thus and thus and thus (i.e. pointing with his fingers thrice), and he held back his thumb at the third time (in order to show that it can also consist of twenty-nine days).

Book 6, Number 2372:

Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with both of them) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The month may consist of twenty-nine days.

Book 6, Number 2373:

Abdullah b. 'Umar (Allah be pleased with both of them) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The mouth (of Ramadan) is thus and thus, and thus. i.e. ten, ten and-nine.

Book 6, Number 2374:

Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with both of them) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The month is thus, and thus, and thus, and he flapped his hands with all their fingers twice. but at the third turn, folded his right thumb or left thumb (in order to give an idea of twenty-nine).

Book 6, Number 2375:

Ibn 'Umar (Allah be pleased with both of them) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The month (of Ramadan) may consist of twenty. nine days, and Shu'ba (one of the narrators) (gave a practical demonstration how the Holy prophet (may peace be upon him) explained to them) by unfolding his hands thrice and folding his thumb at the third turn. 'Uqba (one of the narrators in this chain of trans- mitters) said: I think that he said that the month consists of thirty days and unfolded his palm three times.

Book 6, Number 2376:

Ibn 'Umar(may Allah be pleased with both of them)reported Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: We are an unlettered people who can neither write nor count. The month is thus, and thus. folding his thumb when he said it the third time. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Aswad b. Qais with the same chain of transmitters, but herein no mention has been made of the other month (consisting of) thirty days.

Book 6, Number 2377:

Sa'd b.'Ubaida reported that Ibn'Umar(Allah be pleased with both of them) heard a person saying: This night is the midnight (of the month). Upon this he said to him: How do you know that it is the midnight (of the month), for I heard the Mes- senger of Allah (may peace be upon him) as saying: The month is thus and thus (and he pointed with his ten fingers twice) and thus (i.e. at the third time he pointed with all his fingers but withdrew or folded his thumb)?

Book 6, Number 2378:

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Whenever you sight the new moon (of the month of Ramadan) observe fast. and when you sight it (the new moon of Shawwal) break it, and if the sky is cloudy for you, then observe fast for thirty days.

Book 6, Number 2379:

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Observe fast on sighting it (the new moon) and break (fast) on sighting it (the new moon), but if the sky is cloudy for you, then complete the number (of thirty).

Book 6, Number 2380:

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Observe fast on sighting it (the new moon) and break it on sighting it. But if (due to clouds) the actual position of the month is concealed from you, you should then count thirty (days).

Book 6, Number 2381:

Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him) made a mention of the new moon and (in this connection) said: Observe fast when you see it (the new moon) and break fast when you see it (the new moon of Shawwal), but when (the actual position of the month is) concealed from you (on account of cloudy sky), then count thirty days.

Chapter 3 : DO NOT FAST FOR A DAY OR TWO DAYS AHEAD OF RAMADAN

Book 6, Number 2382:

Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him)as saying: Do not observe fast for a day, or two days ahead of Ramadan except a person who is in the habit of observing a particular fast; he may fast on that day.

Book 35, Number 2383:

This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Yahya b. Abi Kathir with the same chain of transmitters.

Chapter 4 : THE MONTH MAY CONSIST OF TWENTY-NINE DAYS

Book 6, Number 2384:

Zuhri reported that (once) the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) took an oath that he would not go to his wives for one Month. Zuhri said that 'Urwa narrated to him from 'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) that she said: When twenty-nine nights were over, which I had counted, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) came to me (he came to me first of all). I said: Messenger of Allah, you had taken an oath that you would not come to us for a month, whereas you have come after twenty nine days which I have counted. Whereupon he said: The month may also consist of twenty-nine days.

Book 35, Number 2385:

Jabir (Allah be pleased with her) narrated that the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) separated himself from his wives for a month. (His wives said:) He came to us on the twenty-ninth day, whereupon we said: It is the twenty-ninth (day) today. Thereupon he said: So far as the month is concerned, (and he, with a view to explaining it) flapped his hands thrice, but held back one finger at the last turn.

Book 35, Number 2386:

Abu Zubair is reported to have heard Jabir b. 'Abdullah (Allah be pleased with both of them) as saying: The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) separated himself from his wives for a month. (His wives said:) He came to us on the morning of the twenty-ninth. Upon this some, of the people said: It is the morning of twenty- ninth (according to our calculation). Upon this the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: The month. may also consist of twenty-nine days. The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) then flapped his bands thrice, twice with all the fingers of both his hand (to indicate twenty-nine) and by the third time with nine (fingers).

Book 35, Number 2387:

Umm Salama (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) took an oath that he would not go to some of his wives for the whole of the month. When twenty-nine days bad passed he (the Holy Prophet) went to them in the morning or in the evening. Upon this it was said to him: Apostle of Allah, you took an oath that you would not come to us for a month, whereupon he said: The month may also consist of twenty-nine days.

Book 35, Number 2388:

A hadith like this has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Juraij with the same chain of transmitters.

Book 35, Number 2389:

Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas (Allah be pleased with him) said that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) struck his hand against the other and (then with the gesture of his two hands) said: The month is thus, thus (two times). He then withdrew (one of) his fingers at the third turn.

Book 35, Number 2390:

Muhammad b. Sa'd reported on the authority of his father (Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas (Allah be pleased with him) that the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) had said: Tho month is thus and thus, and thus, i.e. ten, ten and nine. This hadith has been narrated by Abu Khalid with the same chain of transmitters.

Chapter 5 : THERE IS A SIGHTING OF THE MOON FOR EVERY TOWN; THE SIGHTING AT ONE TOWN CANNOT BE HELD VALID FOR THE OTHER TOWN SITUATED AT A CONSIDERABLE DISTANCE FROM IT

Book 6, Number 2391:

Kuraib reported that Umm Fadl, daughter of Harith, sent him (Fadl, i.e. her son) to Mu'awiya in Syria. I (Fadl) arrived in Syria, and did the needful for her. It was there in Syria that the month of Ramadan commenced. I saw the new moon (of Ramadan) on Friday. I then came back to Medina at the end of the month. Abdullah b. 'Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) asked me (about the new moon of Ramadan) and said: When did you see it? I said.: We saw it on the night of Friday. He said: (Did) you see it yourself?-I said: Yes, and the people also saw it and they observed fast and Mu'awiya also observed fast, whereupon he said: But we saw it on Saturday night. So we would continue to observe fast till we complete thirty (lasts) or we see it (the new moon of Shawwal). I said: Is the sightidg of the moon by Mu'awiya not valid for you? He said: No; this is how the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) has commanded us. Yahya b. Yahya was in doubt (whether the word used in the narration by Kuraib) was Naktafi or Taktafi.

Chapter 6 : IT IS IMMATERIAL WHETHER THE NEW MOON IS LARGE (ON ACCOUNT OF APPEARING AFTER THIRTY NIGHTS) OR SMALL (ON ACCOUNT OF APPEARING ON THE THIRTIETH NIGHT); AND ALLAH DEFERS IT TO MAKE IT SUITABLE FOR SIGHTING AND IF THE SKY IS CLOUDY, THEN THIRTY (FASTS) ARE TO BE COMPLETED

Book 6, Number 2392:

Abu'l-Bakhtari reported: We went out to perform Umra and when we encamped in the valley of Nakhla, we tried to see the new moon. Some of the people said: It was three nights old, and others (said) that it was two nights old. We then met Ibn 'Abbas and told him we had seen the new moon, but that some of the people said it was three nights old and others that it was two nights old. He asked on which night we had seen it; and when we told him we had seen it on such and such night, he said the Prophet of Allah (may peace be upon him) had said: Verily Allah deferred it till the time it is seen, so it is to be reckoned from the night you saw it.

Book 35, Number 2393:

Abu'l-Bakhtari reported: We saw the new moon of Ramadan as we were at Dhit-i-'Irq. We sent a man to Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with both of them) to ask him (whether the sighting of a small moon had something of the nature of defect in it). Upon this Ibn 'Abbas (Allah be pleased with both of them) said that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had said: Verily Allah deferred its sight, but if (the new moon) is hidden from you, then,complete its number (thirty).

Chapter 7 : THE MONTHS OF 'ID ARE NOT INCOMPLETE

Book 6, Number 2394:

The son of Abu Bakra reported it on the authority of his father that the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) had said: The two months of 'Id, Ramadan and Dhu'l-Hijja (are not incomplete).

Book 35, Number 2395:

'Abd ar-Rahman b. Abu Bakra reported on the authority of Abu Bakra that the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) had said: The months of 'Id are not incomplete. And in the hadith narrated by Khalid (the words are): "The months, of 'Id are Ramadan and Dhu'l-Hijja."

Chapter 8 : THE TIMING OF FAST BEGINS WITH DAWN

Book 6, Number 2396:

'Adi b. Hatim (Allah be pleased with him) reported that when (this verse) was revealed: "Until the white streak of the dawn becomes distinct from the dark streak" (ii. 187) Adi b. Hatim said: Messenger of Allah, verily I keep underneath my pillow two strings, one white and the other black, by which I distinguish night from dawn. Upon this the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Your pillow seems to be very large. For the word khait implies the blackness of the night and the whiteness of the dawn.

Book 35, Number 2397:

Sahl b. Sa'd said that when this verse was revealed: "Eat and drink till the white streak is distinct from the dark streak," a person would take hold of a white thread and a black thread and keep on eating till he could find them distinct (in the light of the dawn). It was then that Allah, the Majestic and Great, reveiled (the words) min al-fajr (from the dawn), and then it became clear (that the word khait refers to the streak of light in the dawn).

Book 35, Number 2398:

Sahl b. Sa'd (Allah be pleased with him) said : When this verse was reveal- ed. "Eat and drink till the white streak becomes distinct from the dark streak for you," the person who decided to observe fast tied on one of his feet a black thread and on the other a white thread. And he went on eating and drinking till he could distinguish (between their colour) on seeing them. It was after this that Allah reveal- ed (the words): min al-fajr. And they (the Muslims) came to know that (the word khait) refers to the night and day.

Book 35, Number 2399:

'Abdullah b. Mas'ud (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had said: Bilal would pronounce Adhan (at the fag end of the night in order to inform the people about the time of the Sahri). So you eat and drink till you hear the Adhan of Ibn Umm Maktum (which was pro- nounced at the conclusion of the Sahri and the commencement of the fast).

Book 35, Number 2400:

Abdullah b. 'Umar (Allah be pleased with both of them) reported: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) as saying: Bilal announces Adhan during the night, so you eat and drink, till you hear the Adhan of Ibn Umm Maktum.

Book 35, Number 2401:

Ibn 'Umar(Allah be pleased with both of them)reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had two Mu'adhdhins,Bilal and son of Umm Maktum, the blind. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Bilal announces Adhan at (the fag end of the) night (i.e. Sahri), so eat and drink till the son of Umm Maktum announces Adhan.And he (the narrator) said: And the (difference of time) between their (Adhans) was not more than this that one climbed down (from the minaret) and the other climbed up (to announce Adhan).

Book 35, Number 2402:

A hadith like this has been transmitted on the authority of 'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her).

Book 35, Number 2403:

A hadith like this has been narrated on the authority of 'Ubaidullah on the two chains of transmitters.

Book 35, Number 2404:

Ibn Mas'ud (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying The Adhan of Bilal should not restrain anyone among you from eating Sahur (last meal before daybreak during the month of Ramadan) for he announces Adhan (or he calls) at (the fag end of) the night to make him turn who stands for prayer among you, and to awaken those who are sleeping among you. And he said: The dawn is not like it, as one says (and he lifted his hand) till he (dispersed his fingers) and said: It is like this.

Book 35, Number 2405:

This hadith has been narrated by Sulaiman al-Taimi with the same chain of transmitters (but with a slight variation of words) that he (the Holy Prophet) said: The dawn is not like it as it is said; he then gathered his fingers and lowered them. But he said, it is like this (and he placed the index finger upon the other one and spread his hand).

Book 35, Number 2406:

This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Sulaiman Taimi with the same chain of transmitters and, at the end, it was said that the first Adhan was meant to awaken those who were in slumber amongst them and in order to make them turn who stand in (prayer) among them (towards food at the commencement of the fast). Jarir (one of the narrators) said that the Messenger (may peace be upon him) did not say like this but he said like it (true dawn) that the streaks of (true dawn ) are horizontal and not vertical.

Book 35, Number 2407:

Samura b. Jandub reported Muhammad (may peace be upon him) as saying. The call of Bilal may not mislead any one of you (and he may, under the wrong impression gathered from it, refrain) from taking meal before the commencement of the fast (for the streaks) of this whiteness (which are vertical indicate the false dawn and the true dawn with which the fast commences is that when the streaks of light are) spread.

Book 35, Number 2408:

Samura b. Jundub reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The Adhan of Bilal should not mislead you nor the whiteness (of the pillar) of dawn, for it is not the whiteness of the true dawn, but that of the false dawn which is vertical like a pillar and you can eat food till the streaks of whiteness spread like it.

Book 35, Number 2409:

Samura b. Jundub (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The Adhan of Bilal may not mislead you with regard to your food at the commencement of the fast, nor the vertical (streaks) of whiteness in the horizon (for it is an indication of false dawn). You should stop eating (food) till (the whiteness) spreads like it.Hammad narrated it and with the gesture of his band he explained,the horizontal position (of the streaks of light).

Book 35, Number 2410:

Samura b. Jundub addressed and narrated from the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) having said (these words): Neither the call of Bilal should mislead you nor this whiteness (of false dawn) till (the true) dawn appears (or he said) till the dawn breaks.

Book 35, Number 2411:

A hadith like this has been narrated on the authority of Samura b.Jundub.

Chapter 9 : EXCELLENCE OF TAKING MEAL BEFORE DAWN, STRESS ON GIVING IT PREFERENCE AND PREFERENCE FOR DEFERRING IT (AT THE FAG END OF THE NIGHT) AND HASTENING IN BREAKING IT

Book 6, Number 2412:

Anas (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Take meal a little before dawn, for there is a blessing in taking meal at that time.

Book 35, Number 2413:

'Amr b. al-'As reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The difference between our fasting and that of the people of the Book is eating shortly before dawn.

Book 35, Number 2414:

Musa b. 'Ali has narrated this hadith through the same chain of transmitters.

Book 35, Number 2415:

Zaid b. Thabit (Allah be pleased with him) said: We took meal shortly before dawn along with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). We then stood up for prayer. I said: How much span of time was there between the two (acts, i.e. taking of Sahri and observing of prayer)? He said (a span of reciting) fifty verses.

Book 35, Number 2416:

This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Qatada too.

Book 35, Number 2417:

Sahl b. Sa'd (Allah be pleased with him) repotted Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The people will continue to prosper as long as they hasten the breaking of the fast.

Book 35, Number 2418:

A hadith like this has been transmitted by Sahl b. Sa'd.

Book 35, Number 2419:

Abu 'Atiyya reported: I and Masruq went to 'A'isha and said to her: Mother of the Believers, there are two persons among the Companions of Muhammad (may peace be upon him) one among whom hastens in breaking the fast and in observing prayer, and the other delays breaking the fast and delays observing prayer. She said: Who among the two hastens in breaking fast and observing prayers? We said, It is 'Abdullah. i.e. son of Mas'ud. whereupon she said: This is how the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) did. Abu Kuraib added: The second one was Abu Musa.

Book 35, Number 2420:

Abu 'Atiyya reported: I and Misruq went to 'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) and Masruq said to her: There are two persons among the Companions of Muhammad (may peace be upon him) none of whom abandons the good, but one of them hastens to observe sunset prayer and break the fast, and the other delays in observing the sunset prayer and in breaking the fast, whereupon she said: Who hastens to observe sunset prayer and break the fast ? He said: It is 'Abdullah. Upon this she said: This is how the Messenger of Allah(may peace be upon him) used to do.

Chapter 10 : THE TIME FOR BREAKING THE FAST AND ENDING OF DAY

Book 6, Number 2421:

'Umar (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When the night approaches and the day retreates and the sun sinks down, then the observer of the fast should break it. Ibn Numair made no mention of the word "then".

Book 35, Number 2422:

'Abdullah b. Abi Aufa reported: We were with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) on a journey during the month of Ramadan. When the sun had sunk he said: So and so, get down (from your ride) and prepare the meal of parched barley for us. He said: Messenger of Allah, still (there is light of) day. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Get down and prepare meal of parched barley for us. So he got down and prepared the meal of parched barley and offered him, and the apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) drank that (liquid meal). He then told with the gesture of his hand that when the sun sank from that side and the night appeared from that side, then the observer of the fast should break it.

Book 35, Number 2423:

Ibn Abi Aufa (Allah be pleased with him) reported: We were with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) on a journey. When the sun sank he said to a person: Get down and prepare barley meal for us. Upon this he said: Messenger of Allah, let there be dusk. (He the Holy Prophet) said: Get down and prepare barley meal for us. He (the person) said: There is still (the light of) day upon us. (But) he got down (in obedience to the command of the Holy Prophet) and prepared a barley meal for him and he (the Holy Prophet) drank that (liquid meal) and then said: When you see the night approaching from that side (west) (and he pointed towards the east with his hand), then the observer of the fast should break it.

Book 35, Number 2424:

Abdullah b. Abi Aufa (Allah be pleased with him) reported: We travelled with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) as he had been observing fast. When the sun sank he said: So and so, get down and prepare barley meal for us. The rest of the hadith is the same.

Book 35, Number 2425:

This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Abi Aufa (Allah be pleased with him) through another chain of transmitters (but with a sight alteration of words): In this hadith transmitted by one of the narrators (neither these words are found): During the month of Ramadan." nor his statement: "And the night prevails from that side (the eastern side)." (These words are found in the narration of)Hushaim only.

Chapter 11 : IT IS FORBIDDEN TO OBSERVE UNINTERRUPTED FASTING

Book 6, Number 2426:

Ibn 'Umar (Allah be pleased with both of them) said that the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) forbade uninterrupted fasting. They (some of the Companions) said: You yourself fast uninterruptedly, whereupon he said: I am not like you. I am fed and supplied drink (by Allah).

Book 35, Number 2427:

Ibn 'Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) abserved fasts uninterruptedly in Ramadan and the people (in his wake) did this. But he forbade them to do so. It was said to him (to the Holy Prophet): You yourself observe the fasts uninterruptedly (but you forbid us to do so) Upon this he said:I am not like you; I am fed and supplied drink (by Allah).

Book 35, Number 2428:

A hadith like this has been transmitted by Ibn 'Umar (Allah be pleased with both of them), but he did not make mention of (the words): "During the month of Ramadan."

Book 35, Number 2429:

Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) forbade (his Companions) from observing fast unintermptedly. One of the Muslims said: Messenger of Allah, you yourself observe Saum Wisal. whereupon the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Who among you is like me? I spend night (in a state) that my Allah feeds me and provides me drink. When they (the Companions of the Holy Prophet) did not agree in abandoning the uninterrupted fast, then the Holy Prophet (may peace.be upon him) also observed this fast with them for a day, and then for a day. They then saw the new moon and he (the Holy Prophet) said: If the appearance of the new moon were delayed. I would have observed more (fasts) with you (and he did it) by way of warning to them as they had not agreed to refrain (from observing Saum Wisal)

Book 35, Number 2430:

Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Abstain from Saum-Wisal.They (his Companions) said: Messenger of Allah, but you observe Saum Wisal. Upon this he said: You are not like me in this matter, for I spend my night (in a state) that my Lord feeds me and provides me drink Devote yourselves to the deeds (the burden of which) you can bear.

Book 35, Number 2431:

Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying (the words as said in the previous hadith) but with this alteration (of words): "Take upon yourselves (the burden of the deeds) for which you have the strength to bear."

Book 35, Number 2432:

Abu Huraira reported that the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) forbade (his Companions) to observe Saum Wisal.

Book 35, Number 2433:

Anas (Allah be pleased with him) reported The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was observing prayer during Ramedan. I came and stood by his side. Then another man came and he stood likewise till we became a group.When the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) perceived that we were behind him, he lightened the prayer. He then went to his abode and observed such (a long) prayer (the like of which) he never observed with us. When it was morning we said to him: Did you perceive us during the night? Upon this he said: Yes, it was this (realisation) that induced me to do that which I did. He (the narrator) said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) began to observe Saum Wisal at the end of the month (of Ramadan), and some persons among his Companions began to observe this uninter- rupted fast, whereupon the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: What about such persons who observe uninterrupted fasts? You are not like me. By Allah. if the month were lengthened for me, I would have observed Saum Wisal, so that those who act with an exaggeration would (have been obliged) to abandon their exaggeration.1501

Book 35, Number 2434:

Anas (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) observed Saum Wisal during the early part of the month of Ramadan. The people among Muslims also observed uninterrupted fast. This (news) reached him (the Holy Prophet) and he said: Had the month been lengthened for me I would have continued observing Saum Wisal, so that those who act with forced hardness would (have been obliged) to abandon it. You are not like me (or he said): I am not like you. I continue to do so (in a state) that my Lord feeds me and provides me drink.

Book 35, Number 2435:

'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) said: The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) forbade them (his Companions) to observe Saum Wisal out of mercy for them. They said: You (Holy Prophet) yourself observe it. Upon this he said: I am not like you. My Lord feeds me and provides me drink.

Chapter 12 : KISSING IS NOT FORBIDDEN WHILE FASTING IF ONE IS NOT URGED BY SEXUAL LUST

Book 6, Number 2436:

'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) said that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) kissed one of his wives while he was fasting, and then she ('A'isha) smiled (as she narrated).

Book 35, Number 2437:

Sufyan reported: I said to 'Abd al-Rahman b. Qasim: Have you heard from your father narrating from 'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) that he kissed her while observing fast? He ('Abd al-Rahman b. Qasim) kept silence for a short while and then said: "Yes."

Book 35, Number 2438:

'A'isha reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) used to kiss me while observing fast; and who among you can control his desire as the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) could control his desire.

Book 35, Number 2439:

'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) used to kiss (his wives) while fasting and embraced (them) while fasting; but he had the greatest mastery over his desire among you.

Book 35, Number 2440:

'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) used to kiss (his wives) while fasting; and he had the greatest control over his desire (as compared with you).

Book 35, Number 2441:

'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) said that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) used to embrace (his wives) while fasting.

Book 35, Number 2442:

Aswad reported: I and Masruq went to 'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) and asked. her if the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) embraced (his wives) while fasting. She said: Yes; but he had the greatest control over his desire among you: or he was one of those who had control over his desire. It is further narrated on the authority of Aswad and Masruq that they went to the Mother of the Believers and they asked her (and the rest of the hadith is the same)

Book 35, Number 2443:

'Urwa b. Zubair narrated that 'A'isha the Mother of the Believers (Allah be pleased with her) informed him that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) kissed her while fasting.

Book 35, Number 2444:

A hadith like this has been narrated by Yahya b. Abu Kathir with the same chain of transmitters.

Book 35, Number 2445:

'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) used to kiss her during the month of fasting.

Book 35, Number 2446:

'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) kissed (his wives) during Ramadan while observing fast.

Book 35, Number 2447:

'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) kissed (his wives) while fasting.

Book 35, Number 2448:

Hafsa (Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) kissed (his wives) while fasting.

Book 35, Number 2449:

A hadith like this has been narrated by Hafsa (Allah be pleased with her) through another chain of transmitters.

Book 35, Number 2450:

Umar b Abu Salama reported that he asked the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him): Should one observing fast kiss (his wife)? The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said to him: Ask her (Umm Salama). She informed him that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) did that, where upon he said: Messenger of Allah, Allah pardoned thee all thy sins, the previous and the later ones. Upon this the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him)) said: By Allah, I am the most God conscious among you and I fear Him most among you.

Chapter 13 : THERE IS NO HARM IN OBSERVING FAST IF ONE IS JUNBI EVEN AFTER DAWN

Book 6, Number 2451:

Abu Bakr (he is Abu Bakr b. Abd al-Rahman b. Harith) reported: I heard Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) narrating that he who is overtaken by dawn in a state of seminal emission should not observe fast. I made a mention of it to 'Abd al-Rahman b. Harith (i.e. to his father) but he denied it. 'Abd al-Rahman went and I also went along with him till we came to'A'isha and Umm Salama (Allah be pleased with both of them) and Abd al-Rahman asked them about it. Both of them said: (At times it so happened) that the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) woke up in the morning in a state of junub (but without seminal emission in a dream) and observed fast He (the narrator) said: We then proceeded till we went to Marwan and Abd al-Rahman made a mention of it to him. Upon this Marwan said: I stress upon you (with an oath) that you better go to Abu Huraira and refer to him what is said about it. So we came to Abu

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